In today’s digital age, data is a crucial asset for all types of organisations. Many businesses rely heavily on email marketing and promotions to inform customers about new products or to expand their reach by acquiring new customers.

Given the increasing value of data and personal information, the Spam Act 2003 (Cth) (Spam Act) was enacted to protect individuals from aggressive marketing strategies. The Australian Communications and Media Authority (ACMA) monitors compliance with the Spam Act.

This article explores the provisions of the Spam Act and which organisations are exempt from its restrictions.

What is the Spam Act and When Does It Apply?

The Spam Act regulates all commercial electronic messages sent by businesses, except for those that are exempt. Commercial electronic messages are those intended to advertise:

  • The supply of goods and/or services;
  • An interest in land;
  • A supplier of land; or
  • A business or investment opportunity.

The Spam Act applies to messages sent using an internet carriage service to an email account, instant messaging account, social media account, or via text message. When determining if a message is commercial, the law takes a holistic approach, considering the content of the message, how it presents itself, and any included links. Email marketing campaigns are the most common form of commercial electronic messages.

It is important to note that even if a business is not required to comply with Australian privacy laws, it must still adhere to the Spam Act. There is no minimum threshold for businesses to whom the Spam Act applies.


Not all organisations are restricted from sending commercial electronic messages. The Spam Act allows certain entities to send ‘designated commercial electronic messages’. These entities include:

  • Government bodies;
  • Registered political parties;
  • Registered charities; and
  • Educational institutions.

These entities can send messages related only to their own goods and/or services.

Additionally, businesses not classified under the above categories may send designated commercial electronic messages if the content consists solely of factual information. However, caution is advised when sending such messages. If any part of the message contains marketing or promotional material, the entire message is considered commercial and subject to the Spam Act’s restrictions. For example, including a link to a recent promotion in the footer of an email could make the entire message commercial.

When Can a Non-Exempt Business Send Marketing Material?

We have all received marketing emails, so under what circumstances can a business send commercial electronic messages? The Spam Act specifies three key requirements for businesses sending marketing or promotional material:

1. Get Permission from the Recipient

The most critical requirement is obtaining consent from the recipient before sending marketing or promotional material. Consent can be:

  • Express Consent: For instance, if the recipient opts in to receive direct marketing emails.
  • Inferred Consent: If the recipient has knowingly provided their contact information (such as signing up for an account), and it is reasonable to believe they expect to receive messages from your business.

Inferred consent cannot be assumed if the recipient has made only a one-off purchase from your business.

2. Identify Yourself as the Sender

Your message must accurately identify your business and include correct contact details for you and your business. This transparency builds trust and ensures compliance with the law.

3. Make It Easy to Unsubscribe

Every commercial message must include an easy-to-use, free unsubscribe facility. Any unsubscribe request must be actioned within five working days, although many systems provide immediate unsubscribe options. Ensuring an easy unsubscribe process respects the recipient’s choice and maintains your business’s reputation.


Understanding and complying with the Spam Act is essential for any business engaging in email marketing and promotions. By adhering to the key requirements of obtaining recipient consent, accurately identifying your business, and providing an easy unsubscribe option, you can ensure your marketing efforts are both effective and legally compliant. For certain entities like government bodies, registered political parties, charities, and educational institutions, exemptions exist, allowing them to send designated commercial electronic messages related to their own services.

By following these guidelines, businesses can protect their reputation, foster customer trust, and leverage email marketing as a powerful tool for growth and customer engagement.

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